The Greater Sydney Commission have proposed ‘Growth Infrastructure Compacts’ which will involve state agencies aligning their asset management and investment plans to Government endorsed development sequencing and infrastructure plans in major planned renewal areas. The first is to be developed in the Greater Parramatta to Olympic Peninsula (GPOP) region. SGS Economics and Planning commends the GSC for this important initiative. Patrick Fensham, Principal and Partner at SGS, has prepared a paper which proposed a new Urban Renewal Compact in growth and renewal areas in Melbourne and Sydney. This would have a more local, 'liveability' focus than that proposed by the GSC, including a commitment to engagement with local government and local affected communities.
paradigm for infill development in Sydney and
Sydney and Melbourne are experiencing historically high rates of population growth and housing development. Sydney has added 79,800 people and approximately 26,800 dwellings per year over the last three years, while Melbourne has grown by 91,800 people and 31,800 dwellings per year in the same period. The big historical shift in the provision of this new housing in Sydney and Melbourne has been its more recent ‘infill’ focus. Where these cities used to grow outwards in ‘greenfield’, new release areas on the urban fringe, an increasing share is now within the established areas. While Sydney has typically had anywhere from 70 per cent to 90 per cent of its housing built in established areas over the last 20 years, Melbourne is now catching up, with around 70 per cent of all new housing built in established areas since 2014.
Typically the land supply for recent infill development has come from the conversion of industrial sites to residential. The expectation in future is that corridors with existing rail transport and traditional inner or middle ring suburban residential subdivision patterns will host much more of the infill development. Both A Plan for Growing Sydney and Plan Melbourne identify centres and transport corridors in established areas for a much larger role in future.
An insufficient current commitment to 'productivity, liveability and sustainability' outcomes in renewal area planning
For some suburbs renewal proposals represent a wholesale ‘reworking’ at much higher densities with hundreds of new dwellings per year. Communities often have reasonable concerns about what the redevelopment means, how the traffic and transport networks will cope, how street level amenity will be affected, whether there will be sufficient open space and whether schools and other social infrastructure provision will be sufficient. ‘Business as usual’, incremental infrastructure provision, segmented amongst state government agencies and local government, is unlikely to deliver an urban outcome that meets the amenity and liveability aspirations of the communities that will emerge in these locations, as well as the wider productivity and sustainability aims that underpin metropolitan strategic planning.
With a longer and more established history in Australian cities, planning for greenfield development – while far from perfect – typically includes or at least promises some integration with local and state agencies for infrastructure provision and community development. Major renewal propositions should also be subject to comprehensive planning with commitments to integrated infrastructure provision, and enhancements to general neighbourhood amenity. Otherwise, the average quality of life for residents in a redeveloped precinct, and its surrounds, is at risk of declining over time.
The potential scope for a new Urban Renewal Community Compact with the community
Unless infill renewal is undertaken with regard for place based outcomes, we risk incumbent community resistance on a much greater scale than the recent outbreaks of so-called NIMBYism. We risk the advantage derived from Australia’s reputation for liveable cities and we risk our ability to meet international commitments we have signed up to such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The way to ‘bring people along’ is to show a dividend from growth and ensure that while the quality and character of life might be different, overall it will be better, not worse, than before.
A new ‘Urban Renewal Community Compact’, involving a commitment to integrated planning by state and local agencies is suggested. This would have a local focus, on the assumption that alternative or equivalent processes for metropolitan, district or subregional physical and social infrastructure planning (for secondary school places or hospital beds for example) are in place or also established.
The ‘Urban Renewal Community Compact’ would
- declaring an Urban Renewal Community Compact Area where significant change is anticipated (there are no hard and fast thresholds but areas expected to grow at well above average rates, say at two to five percent per annum, and anticipating a population of say 8,000 to 10,000 or above at ‘build out’, would be candidates)
- establishing a formal governance arrangement including relevant state agencies, local government and genuine community representation in declared renewal areas (some suggestions for governance roles are discussed later)
- developing outcomes and indicators for ‘liveability’ in precincts slated for major renewal
- undertaking baseline measurements for each of the indicators
- making a commitment to the community, for example in the form of a Memorandum of Understanding, that through more effective integrated planning and intra-agency cooperation outcomes will be measured against these indicators post development and be maintained or enhanced
- developing a robust funding and implementation framework.
For any particular precinct the actual indicators and measurable outcomes are likely to vary depending on the baseline provision, but a Compact might ultimately include commitments to, for example:
and land use planning that has this suggested scope will inevitably involve the
greater involvement of state agencies, and ultimately the preparation of more
detailed accompanying infrastructure provision plans and schedules. Achieving
the anticipated outcomes will require innovative thinking about, for example,
land dedications for new open space provision, the shared use of existing and
new facilities, mixed use development and vertical formats including dedicating
podiums for education and community infrastructure and the re-allocation of
road space for a greater variety of transport modes. This is not conventional
two dimensional structure planning.This may seem an ambitious list but only
because of the systemic absence of such aims in renewal area planning. These
are reasonable expectations in rapidly growing, economically strong cities and
the alternative of anticipating that ‘average’ liveability across these
dimensions is expected to deteriorate over time should be unacceptable.
Funding and implementation
Clearly a governance framework needs to be established which will give the Compact meaning. For any identified renewal precinct this would involve a coordinating state agency (e.g. Landcom or the Greater Sydney Commission in Sydney, or the VPA in Melbourne), the relevant local council, key government agencies (e.g. those responsible for planning, transport and education), and ideally, local community representatives. More work would be required to consider their configuration, however Neighbourhood Development Corporations could be established to create genuine partnerships with affected communities. As well as involving the community in planning, these could assist in providing guidance or assistance to land owners in brokering deals with property developers.
Traditional mechanisms for local infrastructure charges or development contributions, and state government line agency budgeting, would fund a share of the cost of anticipated local and state infrastructure. However, achieving affordable and mixed housing outcomes, increased rates of open space provision and environmental management improvements for example, may require additional sources of funding and in this regard ‘value capture’ could have a significant role.
This could take the form of a ‘development licence fee’ as discussed in the recent SGS Occasional Paper, “Development licence fees to fund infrastructure and affordable housing.” However, the intention to apply a value capture funding mechanism such as that outlined has to be signalled early. If land values rise in anticipation of future additional redevelopment potential without such a signal, then it will be more difficult to fund public benefit works anticipated by and committed through any Urban Renewal Community Compact.
 Department of Planning and Environment (2017) Metropolitan Housing Monitor Sydney Region
 Department of Planning and Environment (2017) Metropolitan Housing Monitor Sydney Region
 Department of Energy, Land Water and Planning (2016) Victoria in Future 2016.
 Department of Energy, Land, Water and Planning (2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011) Urban Development Program
 Victorian Government (2017) Plan Melbourne 2017-2050, Housing distribution between established areas and growth area greenfields, Outcome 2, p.47
 Grattan 2011 Getting the Housing We Want, https://grattan.edu.au/report/getting-the-housing-...